Dr. Matthew  Bobrowsky

Office of Public Outreach
Space Telescope Science Institute
3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218
Voice: 410-338-4883 Fax: 410-338-4579
E-mail: mattb@stsci.edu
Adjunct Professor
Undergraduate Programs, SFSC Room 4234
University of Maryland University College
3501 University Blvd. East
Adelphi, MD 20783-8055


Ph.D., 1985, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
M.S., 1980, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
B.A., 1977, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.


Science Content Specialist, CSC / Space Telescope Science Institute, 10/03 - present
Adjunct Professor, University College, University of Maryland (UMUC), 6/83 - present.
Astrophysicist, Challenger Center for Space Science Education, 10/99 - 10/03
Scientist, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Greenbelt, MD, 8/97 - 10/99
Senior Scientist and Program Manager, CTA Incorporated, Rockville, MD, 10/90 - 8/97
CSC / Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, MD, 1/88-10/90;
CSC / Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 11/85-12/87.
Lecturer, University of Maryland, 6/84-8/84.
Guest Lecturer, The Adler Planetarium, 10/76-7/77.
Lecturer and Script Writer, The Newark Museum Planetarium, Summers 1974, 1975.


* Deliver presentations to teachers, students, informal education groups, and public audiences
* Develop and present educational activities based on NASA mission science
* Led teams of educators and scientists on "Journey Though the Universe weeks" to various communities across the country
* Developed and delivered K-16 classroom presentations
* Organized and presented teacher workshops to provide training on newly-developed curriculum materials
* Conducted "Family Science Night" presentations for entire communities - students, their families, teachers, and the public
* Appeared on television and interviewed on radio programs
* Developed interdisciplinary teaching materials as part of IDEAS grants.
* Co-authored educational books for teachers
* Published papers with classroom teaching ideas
* Wrote new K-12 science lessons.
* Reviewed textbooks for scientific accuracy; compiled lists of corrigenda
* Serve as Harlow Shapley Lecturer for the American Astronomical Society
* Speak to groups as part of Challenger Center's speakers' bureau
* Serve on the Science Advisory Committee for the Howard County Public School System


Twenty years of teaching/lecturing at the following locations:

* UMUC (over 200 semester-hours)
* JHU, School of Continuing Education
* The Adler Planetarium
* The Newark Museum Planetarium
* observatory open houses including STScI Open Night
* Harlow Shapley Lecturer for the American Astronomical Society
* various public and school groups, with interactive presentations for groups
as large as 900

Actively seek ways to improve teaching:

* keep abreast of educational literature
* re-examine standard assumptions about experience and (mis)information that students start with (e.g., Bobrowsky 1994)
* optimized my own teaching by various methods:
* had my own teaching videotaped for critical examination
* had other instructors observe my teaching and offer suggestions
* participated in Faculty Development workshops at the Univ. of Maryland
* seriously consider comments from anonymous student evaluations

Results of teaching improvements:

* Recipient of the University System of Maryland Board of Regents award for teaching excellence (given to top three instructors out of (7000)
* One of six instructors from 450 institutions to receive "Honorable Mention" for teaching excellence from the University Continuing Education Association (UCEA)


* Recipient of the Stanley J. Drazek Teaching Excellence award (given to top two instructors out of (800)
* Twice received Teaching Recognition Awards from UMUC (given to instructors in top 1%)
* Received multiple nominations for additional teaching awards
* Excellent evaluations by students at UMUC:
* in top 5% of all instructors
* highest among instructors in comparable courses in the physical sciences
* Excellent evaluations by other instructors; they use phrases such as:
* "stimulating and well organized"
* "an outstanding lecturer"

Service to other instructors:

* Regularly visit other instructors' classes when asked to offer advice
* Served on committee to confer teaching awards to other instructors (but did not serve on this committee in years when I received awards)
* Provide astronomy-related educational materials to K-12 teachers
* Developed and presented workshops for teachers (and teachers in training) on integrating astronomy with non-science curricula

Committed to improving scientific literacy of non-scientists including:

* primary and secondary school students and teachers
* college-level non-science majors
* general public
* addressing concerns of under-represented groups (women, minorities) in all categories
* judging at science fairs


Early evolution of planetary nebulae
Transition from proto-planetary nebulae to planetary nebulae
Transition from post-AGB stars to proto-planetary nebulae
Numerical hydrodynamic models of planetary nebulae
Solar radio astronomy
Influence of solar system bodies on spacecraft


Hubble Space Telescope (optical imaging and spectroscopy, infrared imaging)
Spitzer Space Telescope (infrared spectroscopy)
Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (optical imaging and spectroscopy)
European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (infrared imaging)
Haystack Radio Telescope, Westford, MA (multifrequency radio imaging)
Very Large Array, Socorro, NM (multifrequency aperture synthesis radio imaging)



* Obtained the first spatially resolved images of the Stingray Nebula showing, more clearly than ever before seen, the collimation mechanism producing its bipolar outflows
* Discovered the companion star in He3-1357 (the Stingray Nebula)
* Determined the Stingray Nebula's radius, expansion age, ionized mass, core mass and luminosity
* Imaged the inner torus surrounding the post-AGB star He3-1475, and measured extremely high velocities in its jets
* Developed a self-consistent model for He3-1475, showing that it links OH/IR stars having extreme outflow velocities with highly bipolar planetary nebula
* Obtained the first spatially-resolved images of the planetary nebula M 1-58
* Discovered the torus and other circumstellar matter in the planetary nebula Hu 2-1
* Imaged the proto-planetary nebula IRAS 17441-2411, showing bipolar lobes on either side of a circumstellar disk
* Produced numerical hydrodynamic models of planetary nebulae with a variety of initial conditions
* Demonstrated the progression of H2 dissociation during the earliest stages of nebular evolution
* Showed how nebular velocity, density, fractional ionization, and fraction of gas in molecules vary with time
* Demonstrated the development of linear and non-linear v-r relations
* Showed how the brightness of a planetary nebula varies over time during the early evolutionary stages
* Demonstrated the development of doubly-peaked radial density profiles
* Derived model emission-line profiles; showed how single-, double-, and triple-peaked profiles can be produced; showed how both sharply-peaked and flat-topped profiles can occur
* Demonstrated pitfalls when interpreting emission-line profiles, particularly when determining expansion velocities
* Showed that H( and microwave subflares could be caused by a distant solar flare (at the remote footpoint of a magnetic loop)
* Showed that 5 GHz solar radio bursts are co-spatial with hard x-ray bursts (suggesting repeated accelerations of electrons within the same magnetic trap)
* Detected polarization changes for successive radio bursts (indicating variations in the magnetic field geometry)
* Showed that almost all solar regions having reduced microwave emission lie along magnetic neutral lines and are highly correlated with H( filaments
* Made radio observations that ruled out coronal density reductions as the explanation for solar filaments
* Detected time-variation of solar filaments on 1-day time scales
* Determined the height on the sun of a region of reduced microwave emission
* Showed the height to be compatible with the bremsstrahlung absorption model
* Showed the height to be incompatible with a cavity model or a hot filament model


* Showed that, for NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS), the solar reflectivity parameter, CR, varies seasonally due to the changing declination of the sun
* Determined the minimum quantity of tracking data needed for an accurate determination of the TDRS orbital elements
* Predicted the orbital decay and re-entry of the ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 spacecraft, showing the cause to be primarily lunar third-body perturbations


* Led national teams of researchers for Journey through the Universe weeks across the U.S.
* Supervised Science Operations Specialists in the HST Observation Support System
* Led a system engineering effort to analyze and improve HST data flow at GSFC
* Managed HST research programs
* Team leader for Science Data Delivery group in the NASA EOSDIS IV&V program
* Led an analysis group in Flight Dynamics
* Program Manager on $1M "cost plus award fee" (CPAF) system development contract
(obtained award fees as high as 100%)


"Dealing with Disbelieving Students on Issues of Evolutionary Processes and Long Time Scales," M. Bobrowsky, Astr. Ed. Rev., 4, 7, 2005.

"Teaching Astronomy Online," M. Radnofsky & M. Bobrowsky, Astr. Ed. Rev., 3, 148, 2004.

"Mission Prep: A Teacher's Activity Guide," J. Smith, C. Rosenberg, M. Bobrowsky, K. Offringa, et al., Challenger Center for Space Science Education, 2001.

"Does the Doppler Ball Demonstration Increase Understanding?", M. Bobrowsky, in Cosmos In The Classroom 2000, publ. by The Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ed. A. Fraknoi, 2000.

"Moon: A Teacher's Activity Guide," J. Smith, F. Basalyga, K. Ray, S. Beres, M. Bobrowsky, et al., Challenger Center for Space Science Education, 2000.

"Mars: A Teacher's Activity Guide," J. Smith, C. Rosenberg, M. Bobrowsky, S. Beres, et al., Challenger Center for Space Science Education, 2000.

"Teaching Evolutionary Processes to Skeptical Students", M. Bobrowsky, The Physics Teacher, V. 38, p. 565-569, 2000.

"News Clippings for Introductory Astronomy", M. Bobrowsky, The Physics Teacher, V. 37, No. 6, 1999.

"Integrating Astronomy with Elementary Non-Science Curricula", M. Bobrowsky, Maryland Space Grant Consortium, 2nd Statewide Conference, Annapolis, MD, June 9, 1995. Also presented at a symposium organized by the ASP, "Astronomy Education: Recent Developments, Future Directions", June 1995, College Park, MD. Published in conference proceedings edited by John R. Percy, ASP Conference Series V. 89, p. 176, 1996.

"Educating the Public and Students Who Have Never Seen a Clear, Dark Sky", M. Bobrowsky, abstract in "Astronomy Posters", 22nd General Assembly of the IAU, ed. H. van Woerden, Twin Press, Sliedrecht, The Netherlands, 1994.


"NICMOS Imaging of HD 179821 and AFGL 4106," M. Bobrowsky, T. Ueta, & M. Meixner, IAU Symposium #234, Proceedings, M.J. Barlow & R.H. Méndez, eds., V. 234, 2006.

"Departures from Axisymmetry in Planetary Nebulae," M. Bobrowsky, K.M. Xilouris, N. Soker, & R.T. Rood, Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae III, Proceedings, ASP Conference 313, 17, 2004.

"The Dust Ring of LBV Candidate HD 168625: Infrared Observations and Model Calculations," Ap.J., 598, 1255, 2003.

"The high-velocity outflow in the proto-planetary nebula Hen 3-1475," Riera, A., García-Lario, A. Manchado, M. Bobrowsky, & R. Estalella, A&A, 401, 1039, 2003.

"Two Subclasses of Proto-Planetary Nebulae: Model Calculations", M. Meixner, T. Ueta, M. Bobrowsky, & A. Speck, Ap.J., 571, 936, 2002.

"New Observations of the High-Velocity Outflows of the Proto-Planetary Nebula HEN 3-1475", A. Riera, P. García-Lario, A. Manchado, M. Bobrowsky, & R. Estalella, Rev. Mex. AA (Serie de Conferencias), 13, 127, 2002.

"Dual Axisymmetry in Proto-planetary Nebula Reflection Nebulosities: Results from an HST Snapshot Survey of PPN Candidates," Ueta, Meixner and Bobrowsky 2000, ASP Conf. Ser. 199: Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae II: From Origins to Microstructures, p. 195.

"A Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey of Proto-Planetary Nebula Candidates: Two Types of Reflection Nebulosities", T. Ueta, M. Meixner, & M. Bobrowsky, Ap.J., 528, 861, 2000.

"The Stingray Nebula: watching the rapid evolution of a newly born planetary nebula", M. Bobrowsky, K.C. Sahu, M. Parthasarathy, & P. García-Lario, New Astronomy Reviews (formerly Vistas in Astronomy), V. 43 (6-7), p. 411-414, 1999.

"Recent Developments in the Young Planetary Nebula Hen-1357", M. Bobrowsky, Highlights of Astronomy, as presented at the XXIIIrd General Assembly of the IAU, 1997, edited by J. Andersen, Kluwer Academic Publishers, V. 11B, p. 359, 1999.

"Birth and early evolution of a planetary nebula", M. Bobrowsky, K. Sahu, et al., Nature, V. 392, p. 469-471, 1998. (Nature chose this work for the cover of this issue.)

"The birth of a planetary nebula around the carbon star IRC+10216", C.J. Skinner, M. Meixner, & M. Bobrowsky, MNRAS, V. 300, p. L29, 1998.

"The Stingray Nebula: Watching the Rapid Evolution of a Newly Born Planetary Nebula", M. Bobrowsky, K. C. Sahu, M. Parthasarathy, P. García-Lario, in Proceedings of 1997 IAU Joint Discussion 8, "Stellar Evolution on Human Time Scales", eds. E. Guinan & R. Koch, 1998.

"Narrow-Band Optical Imagry of the Proto-Planetary Nebula IRAS 17441--2411", M. Bobrowsky, M. Meixner, & C. Skinner, in Proceedings of 1997 Conference on Stellar Astrophysics, eds. K.L. Chan, K.S. Cheng, & H.P. Singh, ASP Conference Series Vol. 138, p. 19-22, 1998.

"Spatially Resolved Narrow-Band Imagery of the Compact Planetary Nebulae Hu 2-1 and M 1-58", M. Bobrowsky, in Science with the Hubble Space Telescope - II, ed. P. Benvenuti, F.D. Macchetto, & E.J. Schreier, Space Telescope Science Institute, 1996.

"He3-1475 and Its Jets", M. Bobrowsky, A.A. Zijlstra, E.K. Grebel, et al., Ap.J., V. 446, L89, 1995.

"Is He3-1475 a Planetary Nebula?", M. Bobrowsky, A.A. Zijlstra, E.K. Grebel, C.G. Tinney, P. te Lintel Hekkert, G.C. Van de Steene, L. Likkel, and T.R. Bedding, in "Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae", ed. A. Harpaz and Noam Soker, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia, p. 178-182, 1995.

"Narrow-Band HST Imagery of the Young Planetary Nebula Henize 1357", M. Bobrowsky, Ap.J. Lett., V. 426, L47, 1994.

"Numerical Hydrodynamic Models of Planetary Nebulae", M. Bobrowsky and D.M. Zipoy, Ap.J., V. 347, p. 307-324, 1989.

"Short- and Long-Term Determinations of the TDRS Solar Reflectivity Parameter Using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System", M. Bobrowsky, P. Kay, S. Hoge, and O. Cuevas, Proceedings of the American Astronautical Society/American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AAS/AIAA) 1987 Astrodynamics Conference, Kalispell, Montana.

"ISEE Orbit Decay due to Lunar Third-Body Perturbations", J.P. Amenabar, M.C. Phenneger, M. Bobrowsky, S. Hoge, and O. Cuevas, Proceedings of the AAS/AIAA 1987 Astrodynamics Conference, Kalispell, Montana.

"Numerical Hydrodynamic Models of Planetary Nebulae", Bull. AAS, V. 16, No. 4, 1984.

"Preliminary Results of Numerical Hydrodynamic Modelling of Planetary Nebulae", Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., V. 16, No. 2, 1984.

"Observations of an H( and Microwave Brightening Caused by a Distant Solar Flare", M.R. Kundu, D.M. Rust, and M. Bobrowsky, Ap.J., V. 265, p. 1084-1089, 1983.

"VLA Observations of Positions of 6 cm Burst Peaks Associated with Hard X-Ray Burst Spikes", M.R. Kundu, M. Bobrowsky, and T. Velusamy, Ap.J., V. 251, p. 342-351, 1981.

"Observations of Solar Filaments at 8, 15, 22, and 43 GHz", E.J. Schmahl, M. Bobrowsky, and M.R. Kundu, Solar Physics, V. 71, p. 311-328, 1981.


American Astronomical Society
American Physical Society
American Association of Physics Teachers
International Astronomical Union
Astronomical Society of the Pacific
American Association for the Advancement of Science


* Invited speaker at the July 2003 conference, Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae III
* Served on Telescope Allocation Committee review panel for the Hubble Space Telescope
* Presented an invited talk (in memory of Dr. Chris Skinner) at the 1998 STScI May Symposium, Unsolved Problems in Stellar Evolution: "The Circumstellar Shell Around IRC+10216"
* Referee, Astrophysical Journal
* Served on AIAA Space Sciences & Astronomy Technical Committee and its Education Subcommittee
* Served on AIAA Space Systems Technical Committee
* Served two years in a row on a panel (one as a panel chair) for IDEAS proposal reviews
* Received "Author of the Year" award from CTA